## Rossi's E-Cat (Cold Fusion).

In April, 2011, the Italian website

In the interview Focardi concludes by saying, “

Here follows a short the history of my intervention in Journal of Nuclear Physics.

In March, 2011, having read the basic on E-Cat in Journal of Nuclear Physics I wrote a short paper.

My intention was to publish an article on Journal of Nuclear Physics.

To do this, I read the rules for sending papers.

I read the following instructions:

___________________________________________________________

To publish your article on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics you have to mail it as an attachment in Word to:

Your article will be checked by an attorney to verify that the content is legal and will be peer reviewed by a physics professor. The peer reviewing will take from one to three months, depending on the complexity. If it will be accepted, it will be published for free, as all the papers of our Journal.

Warm Regards,

The Board Of Advisers

___________________________________________________________

So I sent the article,and it was then published into the blog.

In the following weeks several comments are followed.

I quote here the final edition.

Note that the version published in JONP is slightly different from this one for some corrections on the numbers. The corrections are listed there in the "Comments".

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

The interest on Andrea Rossi's Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion technology is accelerating [1]. However, Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. Kowalski [2]. says that “this seems to be impossible because the produced copper isotopes rapidly decay into Ni”. But how it works?

Following Focardi Rossi [3] a Ni58 nucleus produces a Copper nucleus according to the reaction

Ni58 + p → Cu59

Copper nucleus Cu59 decays with positron (e+) and neutrino (ν) emission in Ni59 nucleus according to

Cu59 → Ni59 + ν + e+

Then (e+) annichilates with (e-) in two gamma-rays

e- + e+ → γ + γ

Starting [3] from Ni58 which is the more abundant isotope, we can obtain as described in the two above processes Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62. Because Cu63, which can be formed starting by Ni62, is stable and does not decay in Ni63, the chain stops at Ni62 (i.e. Cu63). Each process means some MeV.

Of course how can a proton p gets captured by the Ni58 nucleus? (and subsequent Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62). Following Stremmenos [4] a neutron-like particle, an electron proton pair, a mini-atom, a proton masked as a neutron, gets captured by the Ni58.

__Panorama__has published an interview with Sergio Focardi, University of Bologna professor and colleague of Andrea Rossi who collaborated on the development of the E-Cat.In the interview Focardi concludes by saying, “

**though I should not be the one to say, this is the greatest scientific discovery of all human history**”.Here follows a short the history of my intervention in Journal of Nuclear Physics.

In March, 2011, having read the basic on E-Cat in Journal of Nuclear Physics I wrote a short paper.

My intention was to publish an article on Journal of Nuclear Physics.

To do this, I read the rules for sending papers.

I read the following instructions:

___________________________________________________________

To publish your article on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics you have to mail it as an attachment in Word to:

__info@journal-of-nuclear-physics.com__.Your article will be checked by an attorney to verify that the content is legal and will be peer reviewed by a physics professor. The peer reviewing will take from one to three months, depending on the complexity. If it will be accepted, it will be published for free, as all the papers of our Journal.

Warm Regards,

The Board Of Advisers

___________________________________________________________

So I sent the article,and it was then published into the blog.

In the following weeks several comments are followed.

I quote here the final edition.

Note that the version published in JONP is slightly different from this one for some corrections on the numbers. The corrections are listed there in the "Comments".

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

**Title**How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

**Introduction**The interest on Andrea Rossi's Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion technology is accelerating [1]. However, Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. Kowalski [2]. says that “this seems to be impossible because the produced copper isotopes rapidly decay into Ni”. But how it works?

**How it works**Following Focardi Rossi [3] a Ni58 nucleus produces a Copper nucleus according to the reaction

Ni58 + p → Cu59

Copper nucleus Cu59 decays with positron (e+) and neutrino (ν) emission in Ni59 nucleus according to

Cu59 → Ni59 + ν + e+

Then (e+) annichilates with (e-) in two gamma-rays

e- + e+ → γ + γ

Starting [3] from Ni58 which is the more abundant isotope, we can obtain as described in the two above processes Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62. Because Cu63, which can be formed starting by Ni62, is stable and does not decay in Ni63, the chain stops at Ni62 (i.e. Cu63). Each process means some MeV.

Of course how can a proton p gets captured by the Ni58 nucleus? (and subsequent Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62). Following Stremmenos [4] a neutron-like particle, an electron proton pair, a mini-atom, a proton masked as a neutron, gets captured by the Ni58.

If the masked proton becomes a neutron the result is Ni59.

In order to have Cu59 (increase of atomic number from 28 to 29) the electron (of the masked proton) gets ejected from the nucleus. The masked proton becomes a proton.

The same process holds for all the subsequent transformations, until Cu63.

It remains to be understood the issue of the gamma radiation in the MeV range.

I am an electronic engineer, so I need easy numbers in order to understand.

However "Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler", says a guy. Maybe I am too simple here.

Let’s calculate.

For simplicity I assume all the Nickel in the reactor in the form

For simplicity I suppose for each

The mass of a copper-

Mass of

Mass defect is 62.9353429 - 62.9295975 = 0.0057454

1 amu = 931 MeV is used as a standard conversion

0.0057454 x931 MeV= 5.35 MeV

So each transformation of

According to many blogs in the Internet “One hundred grams of nickel powder can power a 10 kW unit for a minimum of six months”.

How much of

I follow a procedure outlined in [2].

10 kW is thermal or electrical (?) power. The nuclear power must be larger. Assume a nuclear power twice:

20 kW = 20,000 J/s = 1.25 x 10**17 MeV/s.

Each transformation of

The number of

Multiplying by the number of seconds in six months (1.55 x 10**7) the total number of transformed

This means 35 grams.

The order of magnitude seems to be plausible. This means also 35 grams of Nickel in Rossi’s reactor transmuted into (stable) Copper after six months of continuous operation at the rate of 10 kW.

Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. At first glance this seems to agree with calculations based on simple assumptions.

[1] Link,

[2] L. Kowalski, “Rossi's Reactors Reality or Fiction?”,

[3] A.Rossi, S. Focardi,

[4] E. Stremmenos, “Hydrogen/Nickel cold fusion probable mechanism”,

In order to have Cu59 (increase of atomic number from 28 to 29) the electron (of the masked proton) gets ejected from the nucleus. The masked proton becomes a proton.

The same process holds for all the subsequent transformations, until Cu63.

It remains to be understood the issue of the gamma radiation in the MeV range.

**Numbers**I am an electronic engineer, so I need easy numbers in order to understand.

However "Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler", says a guy. Maybe I am too simple here.

Let’s calculate.

**MeV for each Ni transformation****I read that starting from****Ni58**we can obtain Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing**Ni59**,**Ni60**, and**Ni62**. The chain stops at**Cu63**stable.For simplicity I assume all the Nickel in the reactor in the form

**Ni58.**For simplicity I suppose for each

**Ni58**the whole sequence of events from**Ni58**to**Cu63**and as a rough estimate I calculate the mass defect between (**Ni58**plus 5 nucleons) and the final state**Cu63**.**Ni58**mass is 57.9353429**amu**The mass of a copper-

**Cu63**is 62.9295975**amu**Mass of

**Ni58**plus 5 nucleons is 57.9353429 +5=62.9353429**amu**Mass defect is 62.9353429 - 62.9295975 = 0.0057454

**amu**1 amu = 931 MeV is used as a standard conversion

0.0057454 x931 MeV= 5.35 MeV

So each transformation of

**Ni58**into**Cu63**releases 5.35 MeV of nuclear energy.**Nickel consumption**According to many blogs in the Internet “One hundred grams of nickel powder can power a 10 kW unit for a minimum of six months”.

How much of

**Ni58**should be transformed, in six months of continuous operation, in order to generate 10 kW?I follow a procedure outlined in [2].

10 kW is thermal or electrical (?) power. The nuclear power must be larger. Assume a nuclear power twice:

20 kW = 20,000 J/s = 1.25 x 10**17 MeV/s.

Each transformation of

**Ni58**into**Cu63**releases 5.35 MeV of nuclear energy.The number of

**Ni58**transformations should thus be equal to (1.25 x 10**17)/5.35 = 23.364 x 10**15 per second.Multiplying by the number of seconds in six months (1.55 x 10**7) the total number of transformed

**Ni58**nuclei is 36.2 x 10**22.This means 35 grams.

The order of magnitude seems to be plausible. This means also 35 grams of Nickel in Rossi’s reactor transmuted into (stable) Copper after six months of continuous operation at the rate of 10 kW.

**Conclusions**Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. At first glance this seems to agree with calculations based on simple assumptions.

**References**[1] Link,

__Cold Fusion "Andrea Rossi" Method__[2] L. Kowalski, “Rossi's Reactors Reality or Fiction?”,

__http://vixra.org/abs/1103.0080__, March 2011[3] A.Rossi, S. Focardi,

__http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com__[4] E. Stremmenos, “Hydrogen/Nickel cold fusion probable mechanism”,

__www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=338&cpage__, March 2011